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    Orca

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    Febr. Vor den Augen entsetzter Zuschauer tötete in Florida der Orca "Tilikum" seine Trainerin. Kritiker sagen, die Langeweile in der Gefangenschaft. ORCA AVA Software | Baukosten immer im Blick | Kostenplanung nach DIN | BIM-IFC Schnittstelle | GAEB zertifiziert | Intuitive Bedienung. 7. Jan. Einen Tag nachdem der berühmte Orca Tilikum gestorben ist, erzählt sein langjähriger Trainer von dem Schwertwal. Obwohl es an dem Tod.

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    Despite decades of research, where these animals go for the rest of the year remains unknown. Transient pods have been sighted from southern Alaska to central California.

    Worldwide population estimates are uncertain, but recent consensus suggests a minimum of 50, Killer whales are apex predators , meaning that they themselves have no natural predators.

    They are sometimes called the wolves of the sea, because they hunt in groups like wolf packs. Fish-eating killer whales prey on around 30 species of fish.

    Some populations in the Norwegian and Greenland sea specialize in herring and follow that fish's autumnal migration to the Norwegian coast. They then slap the ball with their tail flukes, stunning or killing up to 15 fish at a time, then eating them one by one.

    Carousel feeding has only been documented in the Norwegian killer whale population, as well as some oceanic dolphin species. In New Zealand , sharks and rays appear to be important prey, including eagle rays , long-tail and short-tail stingrays , common threshers , smooth hammerheads , blue sharks , basking sharks and shortfin mako sharks.

    Killer whales are very sophisticated and effective predators of marine mammals. Thirty-two cetacean species have been recorded as prey, from observing orcas' feeding activity, examining the stomach contents of dead orcas, and seeing scars on the bodies of surviving prey animals.

    Groups even attack larger cetaceans such as minke whales , gray whales , [] and, rarely, sperm whales or blue whales. Hunting a large whale usually takes several hours.

    Killer whales generally attack young or weak animals; however, a group of five or more may attack a healthy adult.

    When hunting a young whale, a group chases it and its mother to exhaustion. Eventually, they separate the pair and surround the calf, drowning it by keeping it from surfacing.

    Pods of female sperm whales sometimes protect themselves by forming a protective circle around their calves with their flukes facing outwards, using them to repel the attackers.

    Adult bull sperm whales, which are large, powerful and aggressive when threatened, and fully grown adult blue whales, which are possibly too large to overwhelm, are not believed to be prey for killer whales.

    Prior to the advent of industrial whaling , great whales may have been the major food source for killer whales. The introduction of modern whaling techniques may have aided killer whales by the sound of exploding harpoons indicating availability of prey to scavenge, and compressed air inflation of whale carcasses causing them to float, thus exposing them to scavenging.

    However, the devastation of great whale populations by unfettered whaling has possibly reduced their availability for killer whales, and caused them to expand their consumption of smaller marine mammals, thus contributing to the decline of these as well.

    It has been hypothesised that predation by orcas on whale calves in high-productivity, high-latitude areas is the reason for great whale migrations during breeding season to low-productivity tropical waters where orcas are scarcer.

    Other marine mammal prey species include nearly 20 species of seal , sea lion and fur seal. Walruses and sea otters are less frequently taken.

    Often, to avoid injury, killer whales disable their prey before killing and eating it. This may involve throwing it in the air, slapping it with their tails, ramming it, or breaching and landing on it.

    In the Aleutian Islands , a decline in sea otter populations in the s was controversially attributed by some scientists to killer whale predation, although with no direct evidence.

    Beaching, usually fatal to cetaceans, is not an instinctive behaviour, and can require years of practice for the young. This washes the prey into the water, where other killer whales lie in wait.

    Killer whales have also been observed preying on terrestrial mammals , such as deer swimming between islands off the northwest coast of North America.

    Killer whales in many areas may prey on cormorants and gulls. Four others then learned to copy the behaviour. Day-to-day killer whale behaviour generally consists of foraging, travelling, resting and socializing.

    Killer whales frequently engage in surface behaviour such as breaching jumping completely out of the water and tail-slapping. These activities may have a variety of purposes, such as courtship, communication, dislodging parasites , or play.

    Spyhopping is a behaviour in which a whale holds its head above water to view its surroundings. Resident killer whales swim alongside porpoises , other dolphins , seals , and sea lions , which are common prey for transient killer whales.

    Killer whales are notable for their complex societies. Only elephants and higher primates live in comparably complex social structures. Resident killer whales in the eastern North Pacific live in particularly complex and stable social groups.

    Unlike any other known mammal social structure, resident whales live with their mothers for their entire lives. These family groups are based on matrilines consisting of the eldest female matriarch and her sons and daughters, and the descendants of her daughters, etc.

    The average size of a matriline is 5. These matrilineal groups are highly stable. Individuals separate for only a few hours at a time, to mate or forage.

    With one exception, a killer whale named Luna , no permanent separation of an individual from a resident matriline has been recorded.

    Closely related matrilines form loose aggregations called pods, usually consisting of one to four matrilines. Unlike matrilines, pods may separate for weeks or months at a time.

    Clan ranges overlap, mingling pods from different clans. Clans within a community do not share vocal patterns.

    Transient pods are smaller than resident pods, typically consisting of an adult female and one or two of her offspring. Males typically maintain stronger relationships with their mothers than other females.

    These bonds can extend well into adulthood. Unlike residents, extended or permanent separation of transient offspring from natal matrilines is common, with juveniles and adults of both sexes participating.

    Some males become "rovers" and do not form long-term associations, occasionally joining groups that contain reproductive females.

    Like all cetaceans , killer whales depend heavily on underwater sound for orientation, feeding, and communication.

    They produce three categories of sounds: Clicks are believed to be used primarily for navigation and discriminating prey and other objects in the surrounding environment, but are also commonly heard during social interactions.

    Northeast Pacific resident groups tend to be much more vocal than transient groups in the same waters. In contrast, the marine mammal prey of transients hear well underwater at the frequencies used in killer whale calls.

    As such, transients are typically silent, probably to avoid alerting their mammalian prey. Residents are only silent when resting.

    All members of a resident pod use similar calls, known collectively as a dialect. Dialects are composed of specific numbers and types of discrete, repetitive calls.

    They are complex and stable over time. Similarity in dialects likely reflects the degree of relatedness between pods, with variation building over time.

    The use of both call types is called biphonation. The increased subset call types may be the distinguishing factor between pods and inter-pod relations.

    Dialects of killer whales not only distinguish them between pods, but also between types. All members of the North American west coast transient community express the same basic dialect, although minor regional variation in call types is evident.

    Preliminary research indicates offshore killer whales have group-specific dialects unlike those of residents and transients.

    The vocalizations of killer whales in other parts of the world have also been studied. Norwegian and Icelandic herring-eating orcas appear to have different vocalizations for activities like hunting and traveling.

    Killer whales have the second-heaviest brains among marine mammals [] after sperm whales , which have the largest brain of any animal.

    They can be trained in captivity and are often described as intelligent, [] [] although defining and measuring "intelligence" is difficult in a species whose environment and behavioral strategies are very different from those of humans.

    Killer whales imitate others, and seem to deliberately teach skills to their kin. Off the Crozet Islands , mothers push their calves onto the beach, waiting to pull the youngster back if needed.

    People who have interacted closely with killer whales offer numerous anecdotes demonstrating the whales' curiosity, playfulness, and ability to solve problems.

    Alaskan killer whales have not only learned how to steal fish from longlines , but have also overcome a variety of techniques designed to stop them, such as the use of unbaited lines as decoys.

    A researcher described what happened next:. It worked really well for a while. Then the whales split into two groups. It didn't even take them an hour to figure it out.

    They were so thrilled when they figured out what was going on, that we were playing games. They were breaching by the boats. In other anecdotes, researchers describe incidents in which wild killer whales playfully tease humans by repeatedly moving objects the humans are trying to reach, [] or suddenly start to toss around a chunk of ice after a human throws a snowball.

    The killer whale's use of dialects and the passing of other learned behaviours from generation to generation have been described as a form of animal culture.

    The complex and stable vocal and behavioural cultures of sympatric groups of killer whales Orcinus orca appear to have no parallel outside humans and represent an independent evolution of cultural faculties.

    Two species or populations are considered sympatric when they live in the same geographic area and thus regularly encounter one another.

    In , the IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature changed its assessment of the killer whale's conservation status from conservation dependent to data deficient , recognizing that one or more killer whale types may actually be separate, endangered species.

    Like other animals at the highest trophic levels , the killer whale is particularly at risk of poisoning from bioaccumulation of toxins, including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs.

    When food is scarce, killer whales metabolize blubber for energy, which increases pollutant concentrations in their blood.

    In the Pacific Northwest , wild salmon stocks, a main resident food source, have declined dramatically in recent years. In , the United States government listed the southern resident community as an endangered population under the Endangered Species Act.

    They do not breed outside of their community, which was once estimated at around animals and later shrank to around These deaths can be attributed to declines in Chinook salmon.

    Scientist Ken Balcomb has extensively studied killer whales since ; he is the research biologist responsible for discovering U.

    Navy sonar may harm killer whales. The whales seemed "agitated and were moving haphazardly, attempting to lift their heads free of the water" to escape the sound of the sonars.

    The sound originated from a U. Navy frigate 12 miles 19 kilometers distant, Balcomb said. Three years prior to Balcomb's discovery, research in the Bahamas showed 14 beaked whales washed up on the shore.

    These whales were beached on the day U. Navy destroyers were activated into sonar exercise. These six dead whales were studied, and CAT scans of two of the whale heads showed hemorrhaging around the brain and the ears, which is consistent with decompression sickness.

    Another conservation concern was made public in September when the Canadian government decided it was not necessary to enforce further protections including the Species at Risk Act in place to protect endangered animals along their habitats for killer whales aside from the laws already in place.

    In response to this decision, six environmental groups sued the federal government, claiming killer whales were facing many threats on the British Columbia Coast and the federal government did nothing to protect them from these threats.

    Underwater noise from shipping, drilling, and other human activities is a significant concern in some key killer whale habitats, including Johnstone Strait and Haro Strait.

    Killer whales also avoided the surrounding waters. Eleven members about half of one resident pod disappeared in the following year.

    The spill damaged salmon and other prey populations, which in turn damaged local killer whales. By , scientists estimated the AT1 transient population considered part of a larger population of transients , numbered only seven individuals and had not reproduced since the spill.

    This population is expected to die out. A study published in Science found that global Killer whale populations are poised to dramatically decline due to exposure to toxic chemical and PCB pollution.

    The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast feature killer whales throughout their art , history, spirituality and religion.

    The Haida regarded killer whales as the most powerful animals in the ocean, and their mythology tells of killer whales living in houses and towns under the sea.

    According to these myths, they took on human form when submerged, and humans who drowned went to live with them. The Maritime Archaic people of Newfoundland also had great respect for killer whales, as evidenced by stone carvings found in a 4,year-old burial at the Port au Choix Archaeological Site.

    In the tales and beliefs of the Siberian Yupik people, killer whales are said to appear as wolves in winter, and wolves as killer whales in summer.

    In Western cultures , killer whales were historically feared as dangerous, savage predators. Of the very few confirmed attacks on humans by wild killer whales, none have been fatal.

    In the s, a surfer in California was bitten, and in , a boy in Alaska who was splashing in a region frequented by harbor seals was bumped by a killer whale that apparently misidentified him as prey.

    Competition with fishermen also led to killer whales being regarded as pests. In the waters of the Pacific Northwest and Iceland , the shooting of killer whales was accepted and even encouraged by governments.

    Navy claimed to have deliberately killed hundreds of killer whales in Icelandic waters in with machine-guns, rockets, and depth charges.

    Western attitudes towards killer whales have changed dramatically in recent decades. In the mids and early s, killer whales came to much greater public and scientific awareness, starting with the first live-capture and display of a killer whale known as Moby Doll , a resident harpooned off Saturna Island in To the surprise of those who saw him, Moby Doll was a docile, nonaggressive whale that made no attempts to attack humans.

    Between and , 50 killer whales from the Pacific Northwest were captured for display in aquaria , and public interest in the animals grew.

    In the s, research pioneered by Michael Bigg led to the discovery of the species' complex social structure, its use of vocal communication, and its extraordinarily stable mother—offspring bonds.

    Through photo-identification techniques, individuals were named and tracked over decades. Bigg's techniques also revealed the Pacific Northwest population was in the low hundreds rather than the thousands that had been previously assumed.

    The public's growing appreciation also led to growing opposition to whale—keeping in aquarium. Only one whale has been taken in North American waters since In recent years, the extent of the public's interest in killer whales has manifested itself in several high-profile efforts surrounding individuals.

    Following the success of the film Free Willy , the movie's captive star Keiko was returned to the coast of his native Iceland in She became the first whale to be successfully reintegrated into a wild pod after human intervention, crystallizing decades of research into the vocal behavior and social structure of the region's killer whales.

    However, his case was marked by controversy about whether and how to intervene, and in , Luna was killed by a boat propeller. The earlier of known records of commercial hunting of killer whales date to the 18th century in Japan.

    During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the global whaling industry caught immense numbers of baleen and sperm whales, but largely ignored killer whales because of their limited amounts of recoverable oil , their smaller populations, and the difficulty of taking them.

    Between and , Japan took 1, killer whales although the Ministry of the Environment claims that there had been domestic catches of about 1, whales between late s to s [] and Norway took Today, no country carries out a substantial hunt, although Indonesia and Greenland permit small subsistence hunts see Aboriginal whaling.

    Other than commercial hunts, killer whales were hunted along Japanese coasts out of public concern for potential conflicts with fisheries.

    Such cases include a semi-resident male-female pair in Akashi Strait and Harimanada being killed in the Seto Inland Sea in , [] [] the killing of five whales from a pod of 11 members that swam into Tokyo Bay in , [] and a catch record in southern Taiwan in the s.

    Killer whales have helped humans hunting other whales. Whalers more often considered them a nuisance, however, as orcas would gather to scavenge meat from the whalers' catch.

    The killer whale's intelligence , trainability, striking appearance, playfulness in captivity and sheer size have made it a popular exhibit at aquaria and aquatic theme parks.

    From to , 55 whales were taken from the wild in Iceland, 19 from Japan, and three from Argentina. These figures exclude animals that died during capture.

    Organizations such as World Animal Protection and the Whale and Dolphin Conservation campaign against the practice of keeping them in captivity.

    Captives have vastly reduced life expectancies, on average only living into their 20s. Wild males who survive infancy live 31 years on average, and up to 50—60 years.

    Critics claim captive life is stressful due to these factors and the requirement to perform circus tricks that are not part of wild killer whale behavior, see above.

    A study coauthored by staff at SeaWorld and the Minnesota Zoo indicates that there is no significant difference in survivorship between free-ranging and captive killer whales.

    The authors speculate about the future utility of studying captive populations for the purposes of understanding orca biology and the implications of such research of captive animals in the overall health of both wild and marine park populations.

    As of March , SeaWorld has announced that they will be ending their orca breeding program and their theatrical shows. They previously announced, in November , that the shows would be coming to an end in San Diego but it is now to happen in both Orlando and San Antonio as well.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Orca disambiguation. The largest living species of dolphin.

    Linnaeus , [5]. Multimedia relating to the orca. Killer whale calls at a distance. Vocalizations of a killer whale. Killer whale attacks on humans. Killer Whales in popular culture.

    Cetaceans portal Marine life portal. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 28 April International Union for Conservation of Nature.

    Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved March 9, Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.

    Tomus I in Latin 10th ed. Scientific Classification , Seaworld. It's a Name, Not an Accusation. Retrieved January 26, Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the eastern North Pacific and adjacent Arctic waters: Status of Killer Whales in Canada.

    Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. Is there a global model? Canadian Journal of Zoology. Communicating with costly calls".

    Archived from the original on March 1, Retrieved December 4, Occurrence, movements, and insights into feeding ecology". Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved August 15, Population structure and genetic variability in northeastern Pacific killer whales: Towards an assessment of population viability.

    Retrieved February 23, Growth and reproduction of killer whales, Orcinus orca, in Norwegian coastal waters. Reports of the International Whaling Commission.

    Archived from the original PDF on July 13, Retrieved January 6, Retrieved February 16, It Comes in Several Types". Killer in the kelp". Retrieved December 30, Archived from the original on April 5, Retrieved March 23, Archived from the original PDF on January 18, Retrieved April 23, Archived from the original on September 4, Retrieved September 14, Gornall, 3rd, and T.

    Mistrust and betrayals happen amongst the gang in the quest for gold. After witnessing his mate and child's death from Nolan's hands, Orca, the killer whale, goes on a rampage in the fishermen's harbor.

    Under the villagers' pressure, Nolan, Rachel and an Indian sail after the great beast, who will bring them on his own turf.

    Written by M Lalonde. Orca is the greatest movie of all time. I'm sure most people say that their favorite movie is the greatest of all time, but they are all wrong.

    Orca brings together some of the finest actors. Richard Harris, who unfortunately will be remembered for some trivial movie about a boy wizard and a throwaway musical about King Arthur, does his finest work in Orca.

    His portrayal of Captain Nolan, an emotionally torn fisherman coming to terms with the fact the marine animals have feelings, deserved the Oscar.

    No, that is not a strike against this fine film. Charlotte Rampling brings texture to the marine biologist in love with a whale baby killer.

    The romance between the two is subtle. While most modern Hollywood movies would just throw in a gratuitous sex scene, Rampling accomplishes just as much with confused looks and having her shirt zipped down in one scene.

    Will Sampson, who is sadly better known for some movie about flying over a cuckoo's nest, also does a fantastic job of playing the Native American guy who says cryptic things and has ice fall on him.

    Robert Carradine, famous for Revenge of the Nerds, shows great range in not being around much and then being eaten by the whale. Bo Derek never equaled her success in this film elsewhere.

    I really believed her leg was bit off. The effects were great for the time. Many forget what special effects were like in those days, myself included because I was not born yet, but the point remains.

    The strange fisheye lens used to represent the whales point of view was genius. And I challenge everyone to find a more realistic looking whale fetus in a movie.

    You can't, you just can't. The dramatic fight between Captain Nolan and the whale could have easily become silly, but it doesn't. The Arctic Circle is accurately represented as a cold place with many iceberg, some of which whales can thwack themselves upon catapulting middle-aged Irishmen forty feet in the air.

    Keep in mind, also, this was done without the use of computer graphics. Steven Spielberg did not even put the shark in Jaws until over halfway through the film.

    To hide a machine so fake that I can only assume one of his children made it at camp. The mechanical killer whale in Orca is almost indistinguishable from the stock footage of killer whales continually played throughout the movie.

    In , how many directors were brave enough to shoot a killer whale jumping from one side of the boat, eating actor Robert Carradine, and landing on the other side?

    Just one, Michael Anderson. His bold choices along with screenwriters Luciano Vincenzoni and Sergio Donati who both show an above average command of the English languages for native-born Italian speakers make the film a statement not only about whale hunting and whale forgiveness seeking, but also about humanity.

    Charlotte Rampling's appeal to Nolan not to go fight the whale just because the whale wants revenge is not just about social protocols of how to make it up to the father of a whale baby you accidentally killed, but also an argument against the death penalty.

    Will Sampson's pointless death is an indictment of the senseless slaughter of tens of millions of Native Americans. When the whale knocks down Captain Nolan's house without any explanation of this whale became such a genius that he can not only knows to knock down structural supports but also can look up addresses in the phone book, it directly shows how our incursion into the world of nature is two-fold.

    Robert Carradine's tragic death in the film is social commentary on the probability of being eaten if you stand around on a boat being followed by a crazed killer whale.

    And probably also something about Vietnam, I assume. And while most in Hollywood choose not to admit it, many have ripped off Orca.

    The dead baby scene in Trainspotting is suspiciously reminiscent of the dead whale fetus scene in Orca. The creepy quasi-romance between an intelligent female and a somewhat crazy violent child murderer is directly stolen by George Lucas for Star Wars: The use of icebergs is blatantly co-opted by Titanic, and I have never heard James Cameron so much as thank Michael Anderson.

    And don't even get me started on Free Willy. Orca is a complicated story. If you only enjoy movies with obvious heroes and villains, this is not for you.

    The characters are conflicted. Take for instance how the killer whale jumps for joy after biting off Bo Derek's leg. The whale shows both glee in his jumps, but also the pain of having lost his family and never being able to bring them back no matter how hard he fights those who took them from him.

    You see, the only thing black and white in this movie is the killer whale itself. While Orca does not now get the respect it deserves, in time people will realize its genius.

    Just as people did not understand gravity or continental drift, in time they will come to recognize Orca as the greatest cinematic achievement of all time.

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    And while most in Hollywood choose not to admit it, many have ripped off Orca. The dead baby scene in Trainspotting is suspiciously reminiscent of the dead whale fetus scene in Orca.

    The creepy quasi-romance between an intelligent female and a somewhat crazy violent child murderer is directly stolen by George Lucas for Star Wars: The use of icebergs is blatantly co-opted by Titanic, and I have never heard James Cameron so much as thank Michael Anderson.

    And don't even get me started on Free Willy. Orca is a complicated story. If you only enjoy movies with obvious heroes and villains, this is not for you.

    The characters are conflicted. Take for instance how the killer whale jumps for joy after biting off Bo Derek's leg.

    The whale shows both glee in his jumps, but also the pain of having lost his family and never being able to bring them back no matter how hard he fights those who took them from him.

    You see, the only thing black and white in this movie is the killer whale itself. While Orca does not now get the respect it deserves, in time people will realize its genius.

    Just as people did not understand gravity or continental drift, in time they will come to recognize Orca as the greatest cinematic achievement of all time.

    Explore popular and recently added TV series available to stream now with Prime Video. Start your free trial. Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet!

    Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. A hunter squares off against a killer whale seeking vengeance for the death of its mate.

    Luciano Vincenzoni story and screenplay , Sergio Donati. Related News Hollywood Flashback: Meine Filme - ab 5 bewertet.

    The Best Animal Horror Movies. Share this Rating Title: Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin.

    Stay out of the Water! Learn more More Like This. A mutated giant octopus wreaks havoc on a California seaside community.

    The Last Shark A True Story Edit Cast Complete credited cast: Captain Nolan Charlotte Rampling If you're an enthusiast in this field of data manipulation, then Orca is the proper toolbox you need to take MSI authoring to the next level.

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    Orca was reviewed by Alexandru Pintilie. Click to load comments. A typical killer whale distinctively bears a black back, white chest and sides, and a white patch above and behind the eye.

    Calves are born with a yellowish or orange tint, which fades to white. It has a heavy and robust body [50] with a large dorsal fin up to 1.

    Antarctic killer whales may have pale gray to nearly white backs. Adult killer whales are very distinctive, seldom confused with any other sea creature.

    The killer whale's teeth are very strong, and its jaws exert a powerful grip; the upper teeth fall into the gaps between the lower teeth when the mouth is closed.

    The firm middle and back teeth hold prey in place, while the front teeth are inclined slightly forward and outward to protect them from powerful jerking movements.

    Killer whales are the largest extant members of the dolphin family. Killer whale pectoral fins , analogous to forelimbs, are large and rounded, resembling paddles, with those of males significantly larger than those of females.

    Dorsal fin s also exhibit sexual dimorphism , with those of males about 1. An individual killer whale can often be identified from its dorsal fin and saddle patch.

    Variations such as nicks, scratches, and tears on the dorsal fin and the pattern of white or grey in the saddle patch are unique.

    Published directories contain identifying photographs and names for hundreds of North Pacific animals. Photographic identification has enabled the local population of killer whales to be counted each year rather than estimated, and has enabled great insight into lifecycles and social structures.

    Occasionally a killer whale is white; they have been spotted in the northern Bering Sea and around St. Lawrence Island , and near the Russian coast.

    Burdin and Erich Hoyt , filmed an adult male nicknamed Iceberg. Killer whales have good eyesight above and below the water, excellent hearing, and a good sense of touch.

    They have exceptionally sophisticated echolocation abilities, detecting the location and characteristics of prey and other objects in the water by emitting clicks and listening for echoes, [68] as do other members of the dolphin family.

    Female killer whales begin to mature at around the age of 10 and reach peak fertility around 20, [72] experiencing periods of polyestrous cycling separated by non-cycling periods of three to 16 months.

    Females can often breed until age 40, followed by a rapid decrease in fertility. Some are claimed to have lived substantially longer: Granny J2 was estimated by some researchers to have been as years old at the time of her death, though a biopsy sample indicated her age as 65 to 80 years.

    To avoid inbreeding , males mate with females from other pods. Gestation varies from 15 to 18 months. In resident pods, births occur at any time of year, although winter is the most common.

    According to observations in several regions, all male and female pod members participate in the care of the young. Males sexually mature at the age of 15, but do not typically reproduce until age Wild males live around 29 years on average, with a maximum of about 60 years.

    This would have made him up to 90 years old. Examination of his teeth indicated he died around age 35, [81] but this method of age determination is now believed to be inaccurate for older animals.

    Infanticide , once thought to occur only in captive killer whales, was observed in wild populations by researchers off British Columbia on Dec.

    In this incident, an adult male killed the calf of a female within the same pod, with his mother also joining in the assault.

    It is theorized that the male killed the young calf in order to mate with its mother something that occurs in other carnivore species , while the male's mother supported the breeding opportunity for her son.

    The attack ended when the calf's mother struck and injured the attacking male. Such behavior matches that of many smaller dolphin species such as the bottlenose dolphin.

    Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas. Due to their enormous range , numbers, and density, relative distribution is difficult to estimate, [85] but they clearly prefer higher latitudes and coastal areas over pelagic environments.

    Information for offshore regions and warmer waters is more scarce, but widespread sightings indicate the killer whale can survive in most water temperatures.

    They have been sighted, though more infrequently, in the Mediterranean , the Arabian Sea , the Gulf of Mexico , and the Caribbean.

    Recorded sightings have been made from almost the entire shoreline. However, a small year-round population is known to exist in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    In the Antarctic, killer whales range up to the edge of the pack ice and are believed to venture into the denser pack ice, finding open leads much like beluga whales in the Arctic.

    However, killer whales are merely seasonal visitors to Arctic waters, and do not approach the pack ice in the summer.

    With the rapid Arctic sea ice decline in the Hudson Strait , their range now extends deep into the northwest Atlantic. Migration patterns are poorly understood.

    Each summer, the same individuals appear off the coasts of British Columbia and Washington. Despite decades of research, where these animals go for the rest of the year remains unknown.

    Transient pods have been sighted from southern Alaska to central California. Worldwide population estimates are uncertain, but recent consensus suggests a minimum of 50, Killer whales are apex predators , meaning that they themselves have no natural predators.

    They are sometimes called the wolves of the sea, because they hunt in groups like wolf packs. Fish-eating killer whales prey on around 30 species of fish.

    Some populations in the Norwegian and Greenland sea specialize in herring and follow that fish's autumnal migration to the Norwegian coast.

    They then slap the ball with their tail flukes, stunning or killing up to 15 fish at a time, then eating them one by one. Carousel feeding has only been documented in the Norwegian killer whale population, as well as some oceanic dolphin species.

    In New Zealand , sharks and rays appear to be important prey, including eagle rays , long-tail and short-tail stingrays , common threshers , smooth hammerheads , blue sharks , basking sharks and shortfin mako sharks.

    Killer whales are very sophisticated and effective predators of marine mammals. Thirty-two cetacean species have been recorded as prey, from observing orcas' feeding activity, examining the stomach contents of dead orcas, and seeing scars on the bodies of surviving prey animals.

    Groups even attack larger cetaceans such as minke whales , gray whales , [] and, rarely, sperm whales or blue whales. Hunting a large whale usually takes several hours.

    Killer whales generally attack young or weak animals; however, a group of five or more may attack a healthy adult. When hunting a young whale, a group chases it and its mother to exhaustion.

    Eventually, they separate the pair and surround the calf, drowning it by keeping it from surfacing. Pods of female sperm whales sometimes protect themselves by forming a protective circle around their calves with their flukes facing outwards, using them to repel the attackers.

    Adult bull sperm whales, which are large, powerful and aggressive when threatened, and fully grown adult blue whales, which are possibly too large to overwhelm, are not believed to be prey for killer whales.

    Prior to the advent of industrial whaling , great whales may have been the major food source for killer whales.

    The introduction of modern whaling techniques may have aided killer whales by the sound of exploding harpoons indicating availability of prey to scavenge, and compressed air inflation of whale carcasses causing them to float, thus exposing them to scavenging.

    However, the devastation of great whale populations by unfettered whaling has possibly reduced their availability for killer whales, and caused them to expand their consumption of smaller marine mammals, thus contributing to the decline of these as well.

    It has been hypothesised that predation by orcas on whale calves in high-productivity, high-latitude areas is the reason for great whale migrations during breeding season to low-productivity tropical waters where orcas are scarcer.

    Other marine mammal prey species include nearly 20 species of seal , sea lion and fur seal. Walruses and sea otters are less frequently taken.

    Often, to avoid injury, killer whales disable their prey before killing and eating it. This may involve throwing it in the air, slapping it with their tails, ramming it, or breaching and landing on it.

    In the Aleutian Islands , a decline in sea otter populations in the s was controversially attributed by some scientists to killer whale predation, although with no direct evidence.

    Beaching, usually fatal to cetaceans, is not an instinctive behaviour, and can require years of practice for the young. This washes the prey into the water, where other killer whales lie in wait.

    Killer whales have also been observed preying on terrestrial mammals , such as deer swimming between islands off the northwest coast of North America.

    Killer whales in many areas may prey on cormorants and gulls. Four others then learned to copy the behaviour. Day-to-day killer whale behaviour generally consists of foraging, travelling, resting and socializing.

    Killer whales frequently engage in surface behaviour such as breaching jumping completely out of the water and tail-slapping.

    These activities may have a variety of purposes, such as courtship, communication, dislodging parasites , or play. Spyhopping is a behaviour in which a whale holds its head above water to view its surroundings.

    Resident killer whales swim alongside porpoises , other dolphins , seals , and sea lions , which are common prey for transient killer whales.

    Killer whales are notable for their complex societies. Only elephants and higher primates live in comparably complex social structures. Resident killer whales in the eastern North Pacific live in particularly complex and stable social groups.

    Unlike any other known mammal social structure, resident whales live with their mothers for their entire lives.

    These family groups are based on matrilines consisting of the eldest female matriarch and her sons and daughters, and the descendants of her daughters, etc.

    The average size of a matriline is 5. These matrilineal groups are highly stable. Individuals separate for only a few hours at a time, to mate or forage.

    With one exception, a killer whale named Luna , no permanent separation of an individual from a resident matriline has been recorded.

    Closely related matrilines form loose aggregations called pods, usually consisting of one to four matrilines.

    Unlike matrilines, pods may separate for weeks or months at a time. Clan ranges overlap, mingling pods from different clans.

    Clans within a community do not share vocal patterns. Transient pods are smaller than resident pods, typically consisting of an adult female and one or two of her offspring.

    Males typically maintain stronger relationships with their mothers than other females. These bonds can extend well into adulthood.

    Unlike residents, extended or permanent separation of transient offspring from natal matrilines is common, with juveniles and adults of both sexes participating.

    Some males become "rovers" and do not form long-term associations, occasionally joining groups that contain reproductive females.

    Like all cetaceans , killer whales depend heavily on underwater sound for orientation, feeding, and communication. They produce three categories of sounds: Clicks are believed to be used primarily for navigation and discriminating prey and other objects in the surrounding environment, but are also commonly heard during social interactions.

    Northeast Pacific resident groups tend to be much more vocal than transient groups in the same waters. In contrast, the marine mammal prey of transients hear well underwater at the frequencies used in killer whale calls.

    As such, transients are typically silent, probably to avoid alerting their mammalian prey. Residents are only silent when resting. All members of a resident pod use similar calls, known collectively as a dialect.

    Dialects are composed of specific numbers and types of discrete, repetitive calls. They are complex and stable over time. Similarity in dialects likely reflects the degree of relatedness between pods, with variation building over time.

    The use of both call types is called biphonation. The increased subset call types may be the distinguishing factor between pods and inter-pod relations.

    Dialects of killer whales not only distinguish them between pods, but also between types. All members of the North American west coast transient community express the same basic dialect, although minor regional variation in call types is evident.

    Preliminary research indicates offshore killer whales have group-specific dialects unlike those of residents and transients.

    The vocalizations of killer whales in other parts of the world have also been studied. Norwegian and Icelandic herring-eating orcas appear to have different vocalizations for activities like hunting and traveling.

    Killer whales have the second-heaviest brains among marine mammals [] after sperm whales , which have the largest brain of any animal.

    They can be trained in captivity and are often described as intelligent, [] [] although defining and measuring "intelligence" is difficult in a species whose environment and behavioral strategies are very different from those of humans.

    Killer whales imitate others, and seem to deliberately teach skills to their kin. Off the Crozet Islands , mothers push their calves onto the beach, waiting to pull the youngster back if needed.

    People who have interacted closely with killer whales offer numerous anecdotes demonstrating the whales' curiosity, playfulness, and ability to solve problems.

    Alaskan killer whales have not only learned how to steal fish from longlines , but have also overcome a variety of techniques designed to stop them, such as the use of unbaited lines as decoys.

    A researcher described what happened next:. It worked really well for a while. Then the whales split into two groups. It didn't even take them an hour to figure it out.

    They were so thrilled when they figured out what was going on, that we were playing games. They were breaching by the boats. In other anecdotes, researchers describe incidents in which wild killer whales playfully tease humans by repeatedly moving objects the humans are trying to reach, [] or suddenly start to toss around a chunk of ice after a human throws a snowball.

    The killer whale's use of dialects and the passing of other learned behaviours from generation to generation have been described as a form of animal culture.

    The complex and stable vocal and behavioural cultures of sympatric groups of killer whales Orcinus orca appear to have no parallel outside humans and represent an independent evolution of cultural faculties.

    Two species or populations are considered sympatric when they live in the same geographic area and thus regularly encounter one another.

    In , the IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature changed its assessment of the killer whale's conservation status from conservation dependent to data deficient , recognizing that one or more killer whale types may actually be separate, endangered species.

    Like other animals at the highest trophic levels , the killer whale is particularly at risk of poisoning from bioaccumulation of toxins, including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs.

    Orca -

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According to some authors, the name killer whale is a mistranslation of the 18th century Spanish name asesina-ballenas killer of whales Heart of the Jungle™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in AshGamings Online Casinos, [14] possibly bundesliga elfmeterschützen by Basque whalers after observing pods of orcas hunting baleen whales. When flesh-eating piranhas Native Treasure slots - spil dette video slot online accidentally released into a summer resort's rivers, the guests become their next meal. Such behavior matches that of many smaller dolphin species such as the bottlenose dolphin. Create and edit Windows Installer databases with the help of a powerful tool that displays all variables in an organized table for which you can set read-only privileges. Killer whales in Papua New Guinea waters. Tropical bottlenose whale I. Richard Harris, who unfortunately will be remembered for some trivial movie about a boy wizard and a throwaway musical about King Arthur, does his finest work in Orca. However, killer whales are merely seasonal visitors to Arctic waters, and do not approach the pack ice in the summer. When food is scarce, killer whales metabolize blubber for energy, which increases pollutant concentrations in their blood. Some males become "rovers" and do betway download casino form long-term associations, occasionally joining groups that contain reproductive females. The three to five types of killer whales may be distinct enough to be considered james bond casino royale 720p izle races[16] subspeciesor possibly even species [17] see Species problem. Inthe IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature changed its assessment of the killer whale's conservation status from conservation dependent to data deficientrecognizing that one Beste Spielothek in Bradirn finden more killer whale types may actually be separate, endangered species. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Afrikas Elend Der nächste Völkermord kommt bestimmt. 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